The deep sea or deep layer is the lowest layer in the ocean, existing below the thermocline and above the seabed, at a depth of 1000 fathoms (1800 m) or more. Little or no light penetrates this part of the ocean and most of the organisms that live there rely for subsistence on falling organic matter produced in the photic zone. For this reason scientists once assumed that life would be sparse in the deep ocean but virtually every probe has revealed that, on the contrary, life is abundant in the deep ocean.
In 1960 the Bathyscaphe Trieste descended to the bottom of the Mariana Trench near Guam, at 35,798 feet or 6.77 miles (10,911 meters), the deepest known spot in any ocean. If Mount Everest (8,848 metres) were submerged there, its peak would be more than a mile beneath the surface. The Trieste was retired and for a while the Japanese remote-operated vehicle (ROV) Kaikō was the only vessel capable of reaching this depth. It was lost at sea in 2003. In May and June 2009, the hybrid-ROV (HROV) Nereus returned to the Challenger Deep for a series of three dives to depths exceeding 10900 meters.
DeepGreen is developing a new, scalable source of EV battery metals in the form of polymetallic nodules found unattached on the seafloor in the PacificOcean... We are getting into this industry with a deep commitment to ocean health and a clear stop date in mind ... the ocean floor.
India (like the US, Russia and China) is interested in the deep oceans because the ocean beds are littered with easy pickings of polymetallic nodules, the potato-like clumps that contain a variety of metals such as copper, nickel, cobalt and manganese.NCPOR to hire AUVs.
"These long-living corals are much like the redwoods of the ocean ... Environmentalists have called for a ban on deep-sea mining which would extract prized resources including cobalt, copper, nickel, and manganese from seabed nodules and crusts. Deep-sea mining could destroy as yet undiscovered species, the Ocean Panel said in June.
"These long-living corals are much like the redwoods of the ocean ... Environmentalists have called for a ban on deep-sea mining which would extract prized resources including cobalt, copper, nickel, and manganese from seabed nodules and crusts. Deep-sea mining could destroy as yet undiscovered species, the Ocean Panel said in June ... Pacific Ocean.
Entitled "Predicting the Impacts of Mining Deep Sea Polymetallic Nodules in the PacificOcean," the 52-page report represents a scientific consensus based on 250 peer-reviewed articles, and 80 NGOs are now calling for a moratorium as a result. “There’s the removal of the nodules ...
Since bacteria are the base of the deep ocean food chain, their absence ripples through everything else ...Close to the surface, currents would remove visible damage, and the faster pace of life might allow ecosystems to recover, but these things are slow in the still energy-poor deep ocean.
It points out that the headlong dash towards BEVs using material mined from the land is not a suitable replacement for fossil fuels claiming that the use of polymetallic nodules collected from the deep seafloor of the PacificOcean better for the environment by far ... Pacific Ocean.
Data analytics and consultancy company GlobalData has warned that deep ocean mining faces serious difficulties ...Deep ocean seabeds are thought to be liberally-sprinkled with nodules containing cobalt, copper, manganese and nickel.